Frequently, the antivaxxer community rallies around bad science in order to support their beliefs. This isn’t limited strictly to antivaxxers. Many other pseudoscience-following communities will cite poor research in an attempt to justify their belief system.
Recently I challenged an antivaxxer to post a scientific article proving their belief that vaccines cause autism. Same story, different day. They posted “Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe” which might confuse people without a background in how journal publishing and research publishing works. This was not posted in an actual medical journal that is considered high quality by the community based on a low impact score. More on that later.
This is actually an excellent example for discussing one of the darker sides of academia: the predatory journal.
What is Academic Publishing and How Does It Work?
This might be fairly boring for most people so be warned. In academia, there is a drive to publish in highly “impactful” journals. Whenever I said “actual medical journal” a little bit ago, it’s important to understand what that means. In the academic world, there are great science journals (like Nature) and utter trash journals that have no standards. Whenever we talk about “peer-review,” we’re talking about the cross-referencing system whereby articles in one journal are referenced by articles in other journals. In this way, we see a “consensus” form based on the summation of discourse on a topic. The “impact” of a given journal is based on how frequently articles in that journal are cited by other researchers writing articles in other journals.
The best journals only publish the best articles which get those articles the most exposure to get the most citations which makes them more impactful. Impact is an overall score that’s indicative of how often the article is used as baseline research by other researchers.
See? I told you it was a little boring. Anyway, whenever we talk about “the global consensus” on something, we’re talking about the total result of all scientific articles on a given subject reviewed as one single overarching concept. Whenever someone writes a literature review, they’re reviewing dozens or hundreds of articles on a given subject to critique and summarize the overall findings. Literature reviews are reviewed and the cycle follows itself like an ouroboros except with less snake-eating-its-tail and more researchers-writing-about-researchers-writing-about-researchers.
What Types of Publishing Is There?
At the high end of scientific research is the meta-review. These reviews form backbones for an entire field of study. These combine multiple meta-analyses from numerous studies into one coherent discussion. Meta-reviews published in high ranking journals are the cream of the crop for the best that human understanding has of that topic. These reviews should look at all of the data holistically without cherry-picking. Quality of evidence matters.
On the opposite end of the spectrum are individual studies. These studies describe the results of an experiment. An individual study presents new research that supports or rejects a hypothesis. Studies are repeated in various ways to form a set of studies. These studies are all examined in meta-analyses of multiple studies in the field.
Why Do People Pay Predatory Journals?
Why would anyone do this and how does this relate to the meta-review posted? The publisher of this review has been previously listed as a “predatory journal” because they charged publishing fees to authors while not providing the services of legitimate journals. The point of these predatory journals is to charge exorbitant fees to publish poor quality research that has been rejected by legitimate journals. They also prey on new researchers in developing nations that may not have the ability to conduct high quality research but still are seeking to publish regardless.
It’s difficult to explain to a non-academic but the academic world has a saying of “Publish or Die.” Publishing studies is what researchers do. This is what gets you funding. Those that cannot produce impactful research do not get funding to continue their research. Those that produce high-quality research get more funding to continue researching. Someone will an appreciation for free-market economics would likely appreciate this system. If someone produces a study that is rejected by all of the legitimate journals for either inaccurate conclusions or low quality work, they’ve effectively wasted that time. As a result, some turn to predatory journals to at least get the research in “a” journal even if it is one that has zero standards.
Now that we’ve established a background for how predatory journals work, let’s look at the actual study published by a journal that has been listed as a predatory journal.
BioMed Research International is the actual journal that published this article. They have a low impact factor which indicates that they’re not often cited by anyone. Since this is a study on vaccines, you would expect this study to be published in an impactful medical journal like Pediatrics or something. Instead, it is in a relatively unknown journal hosted by a corporation that is not anywhere near the medical research hubs of the world.
Next, let’s look at the authors of the study. The first author (primary researcher) does not have any type of background in anything relating to vaccines, immunology, virology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health, etc. Not to get into religion but the first author teaches at religious college that teaches a religion-based origination of life rather than a scientific one. If you deny evolution, you’re going to have a hard time understanding virology. All of this indicates that the primary researcher has no credentials in the field of vaccines.
Looking at the remaining authors, no one else really has a background in the medical field/vaccines other than a nurse. Almost all of her published papers are coauthored by individuals with a long history of suing medical companies and are currently blacklisted from being used as expert witnesses for vaccine-related injury compensated cases in America. Additionally, it’s worth pointing out that two of the authors have had legal issues for attempting to sell a dangerous cure for autism.
Ok, so we’ve discussed the importance of research quality, journal quality, and established that the study’s authors have no background in the field they’re publishing in.
What about the actual writing?
It does not present any original data. It argues against 6 well-established studies without evidence. One complaint in the study is based on the study abstract rather than the full paper. They misrepresent data and cherry-pick to make a point. The most damning part of this paper is that it does not provide any actual data supporting their conclusions.
If people with little medical training are publishing in a minor journal with a bad reputation and are not presenting any hard evidence of anything while trying to debunk long-proven studies then it’s a safe bet to dismiss this study as bad science.